What are the main challenges to making cotton more sustainable?

The big challenges are excessive use of pesticides (bad for human health and the environment), environmentally inefficient production methods (which create water shortages and degrade the soil) and poor working conditions. Addressing these issues in the cotton industry is made more difficult because there are literally millions of cotton farmers, many of them smallhouders. Moreover, the cotton supply chain is notoriously complex and varies significantly from country to country. But just because it’s hard, doesn’t mean we shouldn’t do it.